The first modern Farmer-Labor Party emerged in Minnesota in 1918. Economic dislocation caused by American entry into the war put agricultural prices and workers' wages into imbalance with rapidly escalating retail prices during the war years, and farmers and workers sought to make common cause in the political sphere to redress their grievances.
The other primary contributing stream to the Farmer-Labor movement was the Labor Party movement. A Machinists' strike in Bridgeport developed into a Labor Party in five Connecticut towns in the summer of 1918. Later in that same year, the powerful Chicago Federation of Labor launched the Labor Party of Cook County, the organization which seems to have caused the labor party movement to achieve critical mass and expand exponentially during 1919.
The Labor Party of Cook County was founded at a convention called by the Chicago Federation of Labor, held in Chicago on Sunday, Dec. 29, 1918. Approximately 1,000 delegates were in attendance, representing 165 unions. The session approved a constitution and platform which had been prepared and printed in advance of the meeting, the former unanimously and the latter after a brief discussion of a few technical points. The keynote address to the founding convention was delivered by President of the Chicago Federation of Labor John Fitzpatrick, who along with the Federation's Secretary, E.N. Nockels, seems to have been the chief motivating force behind the organization. A new publication called The New Majority was established as an organ of the Chicago and the new Labor Party of Cook County, officers were elected, and a nominating convention set for Jan. 12, 1919, to name candidates for Mayor, City Clerk, and City Treasurer. This second meeting, not surprisingly, nominated President of the Chicago Federation of Labor John Fitzpatrick to head the new party's ticket in the April elections. The party also put forward a slate of aldermanic candidates.
The Labor Party of Cook County was funded by a per capita payment by affiliated unions. Individual memberships were also available for a payment of $1.00, half of which went to dues and half of which covered a subscription to The New Majority. The party had primary units called "locals" located in 27 of the 34 assembly wards of the city. These locals were each headed by a Chairman, assisted by a Secretary.
he New Majority was radical working class publication, preaching the doctrine of the class struggle and featuring coverage of the labor movement, events in Soviet Russia and Red Finland, as well as original or reprinted cartoons by prominent left wing cartoonists including Fred Ellis and Boardman Robinson. The party was supported by a number of past members of the Socialist Party (who generally differed with the party's line on the war), including Algie Simons and former Socialist alderman William E. Rodriguez.
2. Nominating Convention --- Chicago, IL --- Jan. 12, 1919
Throughout 1919 there was a widespread movement in cities around the United States which saw the establishment of Labor Parties in a number of American cities.
American Labor Party [Connecticut] 1. Founding Convention --- Bridgeport??? --- Feb. XX, 1919
In Connecticut, the state labor party was known as the American Labor Party. The group held its first state convention in February or early March 1919 and was attended by delegates from 5 cities: Bridgeport, Derby, Hartford, Meriden, and New Britain. T.M. Crowly of Hartford was elected State Chairman and organizer and Charels E. Haines of Bridgeport was elected Secretary-Treasurer. Five districts were established, each of which was to provide one member of the organization's 5 person Executive Committee.
Labor Party of Illinois 1. Founding Convention --- Springfield --- April 10-12, 1919
The Labor Party of Illinois was established as a means of expanding the movement begun in Chicago at the turn of the year. The gathering was attended by 611 delegates, representing over 90 towns and cities throughout Illinois. The gathering was presided over by Dundan McDonald, President of the Illinois State Federation of Labor, who was elected State Chairman of the party. A 15 person Executive Committee was also elected to help steer party policy. The New Majority was made the official organ of the Illinois party joining the Chicago Federation of Labor and the Labor Party of Cook County in assigning that publication official status.
The convention passed a platform including among its planks a 44-hour work week, taxation of land values, public ownership and operation of public utilities, mines, and banks, abolition of State Senates, and the liberation of prisoners incarcerated for "championship of the Rights of Labor." The convention also recorded its approval of a national Labor Party.
[fn. "Labor Political Party Organized, Minnesota Union Advocate, v. 23, no. 16, pg. 7.]
American Labor Party of Greater New York 1. Nominating Convention --- New York City --- Aug. 23, 1919
At a convention held in the Yorkville Casino on Saturday, Aug. 23, 1919, the American Labor Party of Greater New York nominated Thomas J. Curtis, deputy state industrial commission, as its candidate for President of the New York City Board of aldermen. The organization consisted of teh Central Federated Union of New York, the Central Labor Council of Brookly, the Women's Trade Union League, and 152 local unions.
The gathering adopted a platform which include the declaration: "If we are to escape from the decay of civilization, we must insure that what is presently to be built is a social order based, not on fighting, but on fraternity; not on competetive struggle for the means of life, but on deliberately planned cooperation in production and distribution by and for the benefit of alll who participate with hand or brain. There should be no subject nations, subject races, subject colonies, subject classes, nor any subject sex, but in industry as well as in government we propose to build on that equal freedom, that general conscioiusness of consent, and that widest possible participation in power, both economic and political, which is characteristic of democracy."
American Labor Party of New York State 1. 1st Convention --- Schenectady, NY --- May 29, 1920
The American Labor Party of New York state was founded at a convention attended by 300 delegates from 15 counties. The convention was called to order by William A. Kohn, chairman of the ALP of Greater New York. The conclave nominated a complete ticket, adopted a platform and constitution, and laid the groundwork for the 1920 electoral campaign. Rose Schneidermann, President of the Womens' Trade Union League of New York was nominated the group's candidate for US Senate and addressed the gathering. The State Committee was authorized to name the party's candidate for governor.
Resolutions were passed calling for the impeachment of Attorney General Palmer and Postmaster General Burleson; the 44-hour work week; taxation of war fortunes; establishment of peoples' banks and cooperatives; cessation of war against Russia; and self-determination by small nations.
[fn. "State Party Off With a Rush," in The New Majority, v. 3, no. 23 (June 5, 1920), pp. 1-2]
1. National Conference of Representatives of Labor Party Groups --- Chicago, IL --- Aug. 18, 1919
A conference to make preparations for the establishment of a national Labor Party was held Monday, Aug. 18, 1919, at the headquarters of the Chicago Federation of Labor. Some 30 delegates were present representing state labor party organizations of 7 states, including Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New York, South Dakota, and Ohio. Duncan McDonald, President of the Illinois Federation of Labor and State Chairman of the Labor Party of Illinois, opened the conference. In addition to making plans for establishment of a national Labor Party organization, details were arranged concerning the forthcoming tour of Arthur Henderson of the British Labour Party, scheduled to tour the United States in October.
An 8 member interim Executive Committee was chosen, consisting of the following: Max Hayes (Cleveland) - chairman; M.T. Bennett (Hartford, CT), Robert M. Buck (Chicago), Alice M. Englert (Chicago), Frank Esper (Illinois), Abraham Lefkowitz (New York City), Charles R. Nuzum (Kansas City, KS), William E. Rodriguez (Chicago).
The temporary Executive Committee held a session after the conclusion of the conference and endorsed, in the name of the conference, the so-called Plumb Plan then being advanced by the 14 railroad brotherhoods, calling for nationalization of American railways.
The New Majority was made the official organ of the national Labor Party, pending approval by the national convention, scheduled for Nov. 22, 1919, in Chicago. The call for the convention based participation upon membership size: 1 delegate for each city central labor body, and 1 delegate for every 500 members of state labor parties, local labor parties, and local labor unions. The Non-Partisan League and the Committee of 48 were each invited to send 1 fraternal delegate to the national convention, and the temporary Executive Committee was given the authority to extend a similar invitation to any similar organization it so determined. It is known that the Social Democratic League was included among these organizations, with former Socialist William English Walling speaking briefly on that group's behalf at the November convention.
[fn. "National Labor Party is Born," in The New Majority, v. 2, no. 8 (Aug. 23, 1919), pg. 1] 2. First National Convention --- Chicago, IL --- Nov. 22-25, 1919
The founding convention of the Labor Party of the United States was held at Streetcar Men's Hall in Chicago, located on the corner of Ashland Avenue and Van Buren Street. There were approximately 1,000 delegates in attendence, representing every state in the union.
The first session was opened by Temporary Chairman Max Hayes of Cleveland, who introduced John Fitzpatrick of the Chicago Federation of Labor, who delivered a short address welcoming the delegates. Hayes was then elected permanent chairman of the convention by acclamation (following six other nominations and declentions) and commenced with the delivery of a keynote address, outlining a proposed agenda for the organization. John H. Walker, a miners' union official from Illinois, was elected as Vice Chairman of the convention and Frank J. Esper of the Illinois Labor Party was elected Secretary.
The 1st day was largely consumed with the examination of delegate credentials. A Committee on Committees was established, which named Committees on Constitution, Resolutions, Platform, and Finance.
The 2nd day was occupied with various speeches, including one made by a fraternal delegate of the British Labour Party. The entire afternoon session was dedicated to the Plumb Plan for the nationalization of railroads, with Glenn E. Plumb addressing the gathering.
The convention unanimously adopted a Declaration of Principles as well as a constitution for the new organization.
The Labor Party of the US had a youth section called the Young People's Labor Club (YPLC), open to those between the ages of 15 and 30 and "organized not only for good times, but to promote the mental, physical, and social develoopment of its members, unite them in bonds of good fellowship, and prepare them to assume their places as useful citizens in an industrial democracy." The primary party units of the YPLC were called "branches." It seems that in its earliest incarnation, branches of the YPLC were strictly limited to the city of Chicago. Late in January 1920 the constitution of the organization was amended so as to change the name of the organization to Young People's Labor Party Club. Initiation and first months' dues to the organization were 50 cents.
One important gathering that was a precursor to the establishment of a national Farmer-Labor Party was the Cooperative Congress, held in Chicago on Feb. 12, 1920. The gathering included participants from the cooperative movement, farmers organizations, trade unions, and the Plumb Plan League. The congress elected a 12 person All-American Farmer-Labor Cooperative Commission. The event was closely reported in the pages of The Liberator by Robert Minor.
Farmer-Labor Party of the United States 3. 2nd National Convention of the Labor Party of the US --- Chicago, IL --- July 11-14, 1920
The 2nd Convention of the Labor Party of the United States convened at 11:15 am on Sunday, July 11, 1920, for the purpose of adopting a platform and nominating candidates for President and Vice President of the United States. Max Hayes served as temporary chairman and he introduced John Fitzpatrict, President of the Chicago Federation of Labor and Labor Party candidate for US Senate from Illinois, who delievered the keynote speech.
On Tuesday, July 13, the delegates elected to the Committee of 48's convention left their hall and proceeded to Street Car Men's Hall, where the Labor Party Convention was sitting. There they were welcomed by a band, mass singing of "Hail, Hail, the Gang's All Here," and a wild demonstration. Two programs were offered to the convention, a tepid campaign program, which was rejected by a 2-1 margin, and a broad sweeping declaration of principles, which was accepted by a similar margin.
The Labor Party convention declared itself the convention of the Farmer-Labor Party. Parley Parker Christensen, chairman of the Committee of 48 Convention, was named the Presidential standard-bearer of the new organization; Labor Party stalwart Max S. Hayes was the group's nominee for Vice President. Christensen finished particularly strongly in Washington, netting over 77,000 votes in that state alone. In total, Christensen received over 265,000 votes from voters of the 19 states in which the Farmer-Labor Party was on the ballot.
In November of 1921, as part of a lengthy world tour, Parley Parker Christensen obtained two interviews with Lenin in Moscow.
The official organ of the Farmer-Labor Party was a newspaper published in Chicago called The New Majority. Editor of this paper was Robert Buck, a Fitzpatrick-Nockels loyalist.
[fn. Robert Buck, "Principles are Discussed First" (July 17, 1920), pp. 1-2 and "Platform Worth Fighting For" (July 24, 1920), pp. 1-2 in The New Majority [Chicago]. Solon DeLeon and Nathan Fine (eds.), The American Labor Year Book, 1929. (NY: Rand School of Social Science, 1929), pg. 144; Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia. (NY: Viking, 1960), pp. 29-30.]
4. So-called "Second National Convention" -- Chicago, IL -- May 27-28, 1922
The 1922 Convention of the Farmer-Labor Party was attended by 72 delegates, representing organizations in 17 states. Victor Berger, Seymour Stedman, and Otto Branstetter attended the proceedings as fraternal delegates of the Socialist Party of America.
The gathering modified the 1920 platform of the Farmer-Labor Party, strengthening the plank on public ownership to demand an increased share in the responsibility for the management of industry. The party reaffirmed its support of the public ownership and operation of all utilities, natural resources, credit facilities. It endorsed the nationalization of the railroads under the Plumb Plan and called for nationalization of mines, oil lands, pipelines, radio systems, telephone and telegraph lines, large forests, and large tracts of unused land.
The party also added new provisions to the platform calling for a federal anti-lynching law, the removal of all remaining disqualifications of women. Imperialism was condemned and the recognition of the present Mexican government and the right of Irish home rule was endorsed.
The convention decided to transform the FLP organization into a federated body of labor organizations on the model of the British Labour Party.
John Walker was re-elected as National Chairman, Jay G. Brown as National Secretary, and the following as a new National Executive Committee: Toscan Bennett (CT), William H. Johnston (Washington, DC), John Fitzpatrick (IL), Mrs. Eugene Brook (MI), William Kohn (NY), Max Hayes (OH), John C. Kennedy (WA).
[fn. Carroll Binder, "2nd Farmer-Labor Convention Adopts Stronger Platform," Federated Press Bulletin, v. 3, no. 9 (June 3, 1922), pg. 1.]
The Farmer-Labor Party sent delegates to the 2nd Conference of the Conference for Progressive Political Action, which met Dec. 11-12, 1922 in Cleveland. The conference defeated a motion to establish an independent political party by a vote of 52-64, with the Socialist and Farmer-Labor Party delegations on the short side. At the close of the conference, the Farmer-Labor Party delegation announced that they would no longer affiliate with the CPPA.
[fn. James Oneal, American Communism, (NY: Rand Book Store, 1927), pg. 162.]
In March of 1923, the Farmer-Labor Party of Chicago broke away from the CPPA and decided to proceed to the immediate formation of a national Farmer-Labor political organization. Circa May, over the signature of J.G. Brown of the Farmer-Labor Party of the United States there was issued a call for a "Monster Political Convention of the Workers of America to meet in Chicago on July 3. The convention call was issued to trade untions, state Farmer-Labor Parties, the Non-Partisan League, the Socialist Party, and the Workers Party, The FLP was frustrated with the timidity of the CPPA and the refusal of that organization to enter into independent electoral politics and sought to establish a national organization through other means. The Workers Party was axious to participate in the FLP Convention as part of their United Front strategy. The Socialist Party on the other hand, was extremely hesitant. The SPA carefully considered this matter at its May 19-23, 1923, New York Convention before declining to participate in the FLP Convention, instead seeing the CPPA as the vehicle for a new Labor Party.
[fn. Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia, pg. 39. James Oneal, American Communism, pp. 162-163.]
In the middle of June 1923, a subcommittee of the CEC of the Workers Party of America met with a sub-committee of the Farmer-Labor Party. These two small groups agreed that if sufficient workers should be represented by delegates to the July 3 Conference, the Farmer-Labor Party should be supplanted by a Federated Farmer-Labor Party, and the National Committee of the Farmer-Labor Party replaced by a new National Executive Committee. The number of organizational members sending delegates necessary for the critical mass necessary to trigger this transformation was agreed by the two subcommittess to be 500,000. It was also agreed that the July 3 Conference should pass a general statement of principles and a resolution calling for the recognition of Soviet Russia. If the 500,000 threshhold was not achieved, an Organization Committee for the new federated FLP would instead be established.
[fn. C.E. Ruthenberg, "Report of the Central Executive Committee," in The Second Year of the Workers Party of America. (Chicago: Literature Department, WPA, 1924), pg. 17.]
A short conference of the old Farmer-Labor Party organization seems to have immediately preceded the July 3 National Conference.
Federated Farmer-Labor Party 3A. FLPUS Special Convention -- Chicago, IL -- July 3, 1923 3B. FFLP Founding Convention -- Chicago, IL -- July 3 - 5, 1923
On July 3, 1923 there assembled approximately 540 delegates to attend a special convention of the Farmer-Labor Party of the United States, called in an effort to eliminate factional differences among left wing political organizations in America. Not only was this noble end not reached, but a disastrous new round of factionalism erupted ending in two antagonistic "Farmer-Labor Parties." There were, in actual fact, not one but 3 conventions held in Chicago from July 3-6, 1923. As follows:
The gathering was initially called as a special convention of the Farmer-Labor Party of the United States (FLPUS), to which was invited delegates from political, farmer, and labor organizations from around the country. The purpose of this convention #1 was to attempt to find common ground for joint independent political action -- in effect to enable organizations from around the country to federate with the FLPUS in a new and somewhat broader form. The keynote speech was delivered by Jay G. Brown of the FLPUS, which explained this concept to the gathered delegates.
As planned by Brown & Co., the FLPUS convention then adjourned itself to reopen as an organizational conference for an ostensibly new political party. The Farmer-Labor Party conceived this organization as itself in a slightly altered form, retaining its basic structure and program (and the hegemony of its people in the new organization) -- albeit with an array of new federated affiliates. The delegates of the conference, pushed by a very large and organized caucus hailing from the Workers Party of America, elected instead to build a new organization from the ground up, complete with a new name, constitution, platform and officers. Thus the "conference" effectively became convention #2 of 3 -- the founding convention of the "Federated Farmer-Labor Party" (FFLP).
The Farmer-Labor Party of the US recoiled from the new organization, its constitution and program set aside and its role marginalized. There appears in addition to also have been deep division within the ranks of the FLPUS as to whether any cooperation with the communists was possible (a sharp turn from the tolerant attitude long held by the organization) -- even though the Workers Party was invited to the July 3 convention by the FLPUS itself. During debate on the organization plan at the conference, C.E. Ruthenberg of the WPA made a speech in which he asked the Farmer-Labor Party delegates what they wanted, stating that any concessions would be agreed to save the sacrifice of a federated Farmer-Labor Party itself. Five out of seven seats on the National Executve Committee of the new organization were offered to the Farmer-Labor Party. In response, the convention was adjourned and the Farmer-Labor Party delegates went into a closed caucus.
The FLPUS in caucus refused to accept the structure and program of the new FFLP organization and issued an ultimatum against participation in an organization with the communists. John Fitzpatrick of the powerful Chicago Federation of Labor delivered the position of the FLPUS caucus to the FFLP convention, stating "it would be suicide for us...to undertake to bring into such affiliation any organization which advocates other than lawful means to bring about political changes or is affiliated with or which accepts the leadership of either national or international political organizations whose propaganda and doctrines advocate the overthrow of the government of the United States by other than legal and constitutional methods, such as the Third International." This resolution was tabled by a vote of approximately 500-40, prompting a walkout by John Fitzpatrick and a group of delegates sharing his views.
The Farmer-Labor Party of Washington, headed by former Socialist Chicago alderman John C. Kennedy and William Bouck, refused to accept this perspective and remained with the FFLP; others did likewise as individuals. Structural iron worker Joseph Manley, a son-in-law of William Z. Foster although a factional loyalist to John Pepper, was elected as National Secretary of the new Federated Farmer-Labor Party organization.
The WPA's Chicago labor paper, The Voice of Labor, was turned over to the FFLP and became its official organ, The Farmer-Labor Voice. Joseph Manley was the editor of this publication, and a total of 20 weekly issues were produced, beginning with a press run of 20,000 and tailing off to a press run of about 10,000 at the end. The publication ran at a great deficit -- officially $200 an issue, probably more -- and was financed in full by the Workers Party.
[fn. Robert M. Buck, "FLP Disowns New Party," The New Majority, July 14, 1923, pp. 1-2; C.E. Ruthenberg, "Report of the Central Executive Committee," in The Second Year of the Workers Party of America. (Chicago: Literature Department, WPA, 1924), pp. 18-19; Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia, pg. 75; Joseph Manley, "Ruthenberg's 'Farmer-Labor Audit,'" Daily Worker, Dec. 30, 1924, pg. 4.]
4. FLPUS Snap Convention -- Chicago, IL -- July 6, 1923
A snap convention was called by the FLPUS, including members of its own organization only. This was convention #3. This meeting, held July 6, 1923, reiterated the position of the FLP caucus. Robert M. Buck, editor of The New Majority, was elected permanent chairman of this gathering. The FLPUS was sharply critical of the "new, dual" Federated Farmer-Labor Party for appropriating its name -- even though this had been the original intent of the organization when it had called the July 3 convention in the first place!
[fn. Robert M. Buck, "FLP Disowns New Party," The New Majority, July 14, 1923, pp. 1-2.]
The notion of a "Federated Farmer-Labor Party" closely paralleled the organizational ideal for a third party then currently being advance the Socialist Party -- an organization modelled upon the British Labour Party to which political organizations (like the WPA and the SPA) might affiliate without losing their independent organizational identity. The Socialist Party sought the establishment of an American "Labor Party" via the CPPA -- and failed. The Workers Party successfully "captured" the Farmer-Labor Party organization, only to lose the allegiance of the mass organizations that they with which they so eagerly desired to unite.
Farmer-Labor Party Convention of the Minnesota Federated FLP -- [city?] -- September XX-XX 1923 Conference -- St. Paul -- November 15, 1923
5. Conference -- St. Paul, MN -- March 11-12, 1924
A Conference of the Farmer-Labor Party was held in St. Paul on March 11-12, 1924, at which it was decided to hold its next National Convention on June 17 in that same city. A convention call was issued for that gathering, which called for farmer, labor, and politiical organizations to send delegates provided that they subscribed to a five point "tentative program" that called for public ownership, governent banking, public control of all natural resources, restoration of civil liberties, and the abolition of the use of the injunction in labor disputes.
An effort was made by some members of the Farmer-Labor Party of the United States to merge the convention of the FLP with that of the Conference for Progressive Politiical Action, an attempt which was unsuccessful. This group also attempted to remove all national political parties from the convention call -- the intended effect being to exclude the Workers (Communist) Party from participation. This effort failed as well.
There was pressure placed on the Farmer-Labor Party to purge itself of Communists and to postpone its next convention until July 4, 1924, so that it might meet jointly with that of the Conference for Progressive Political Action. On March 18, 1924, National Secretary Jay G. Brown wrote to the National Committee asking for a vote on the question of holding a convention on July 4 at Cleveland. This convention was not called. Brown resigned as National Secretary, to be replaced on a temporary basis by Robert M. Buck, who soon resigned as well. National Chairman W.M. Piggott then appointed Bert Martin as National Secretary and headquarters were moved from Chicago to Denver.
[fn. Solon DeLeon and Nathan Fine (eds.), The American Labor Year Book, 1925. (NY: Rand School of Social Science, 1925), pp. 145-148; Daily Worker, March 13, 1924, pg. 2.]
In May 1924, the Farmer-Labor Party of the United States announced its withdrawal from politics, unable to control the multiplicity of state organizations or the rival Federated Farmer-Labor Party sponsored by the communists.
6. Convention -- St. Paul, MN -- June 17-19, 1924
The June 1924 Convention of the Farmer-Labor Party (in which the Federated Farmer-Labor Party participated as a member organization) was attended by over 500 delegates representing 26 states. The convention discussed the upcoming run of Sen. Robert LaFollette for President. LaFollette, a bitter opponent of the Workers Party of America, did not seek the endorsement of the convention, which proceeded to nominate its own candidates for President and Vice President of the United States -- Duncan McDonald and William Bouck, respectively.
The National Committee of the FLP met in Cleveland on July 4 and elected delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action. W.M. Piggott of Utah was re-elected as National Chairman and Bert Martin of Denver as National Secretary.
On July 10, 1924, after the endorsement of LaFollette by the CPPA at Cleveland, a majority of the National Executive Committee withdrew the nominatinos of MacDonald and Bouck and pledged support to an independent campaign of the Workers Party.
By the end of 1924, the Federated FLP had ceased to exist.
Farmer-Labor Party of the United States
The demise of the Federated Farmer-Labor Party did not mean an end to the Farmer-Labor Party movement, however. The regular Farmer-Labor Party continued to exist at the state level, with state and local organizations in Minnesota, Colorado, Utah, Illinois, Kentucky, Montana, New York, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, Missouri, Washington, the Dakotas, and elsewhere. National organization continued under the leadership of National Chairman W.M. Piggott and National Secretary Bert Miller. The group's 1920 Presidential candidate, Parley Parker Christensen, attended the Dec. 12, 1924, meeting of the National Committee of the Conference for Progressive Political Action and was mad a member of the committee of arrangements for the CPPA's forthcoming Feb. 21-22, 1925, Conference.
A Convention of the loyal members of the Farmer-Labor Party was called for that same time and place, where it aimed to cooperate with the CPPA in the formation of a labor party.
6. Convention -- Chicago, IL -- February 21-22, 1925
The Farmer-Labor Party continued to exist in Minnesota until 1944, when it merged with the Democratic Party of that state to form the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL).