Communist Labor Party of America (CLP)

The CLP originated as that part of the Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party loyal to the newly-elected National Executive Committee headed by Alfred Wagenknecht. This group consisted to a relatively large extent of non-Federation members, with particular strength coming from the state of Ohio and various state parties of the Western United States. The group sought to win control of the 1919 Emergency National Convention and left to establish their own organization when defeated on the floor of that body.


National Executive Secretary:

Alfred Wagenknecht (Former SPA State Secretary, Ohio)


National Executive Committee (5):

Max Bedacht (San Francisco, CA)

Alexander Bilan (Cleveland, OH)

Jack Carney (Duluth, MN)

L.E. Katterfeld (Cleveland, OH)

Edward Lindgren (Brooklyn, NY)


Alternate National Executive Committee Members: L.K. England (Moline, IL); Edgar Owens (Moline, IL)

On January 4, 1920 this list of alternates was extended with the names of Finkelberg, Benjamin Gitlow, and A. Pauly, by vote of the NEC.



Editorial Board (3):

Edward Lindgren (Brooklyn, NY)

Ludwig Lore (New York, NY)

A. Raphailoff (???)


The Editorial Board was named at the Oct. 25-27, 1919, session of the National Executive Committee, held in New York City.

At the time of the January raid on the CLP's New York headquarters, it was occupied by L.E. Katterfeld as "Organization Director."


Organization Director:

L.E. Katterfeld


Labor Committee (5):

Charles Baker (Ohio)

L.K. England (Illinois)

Benjamin Gitlow (New York)

R.E. Richardson (Utah)

Arne Swabeck (Washington)


International Secretaries (2):

John Reed (Editor of Voice of Labor, New York)

Alfred Wagenknecht (Former SPA State Secretary, Ohio)

Instead of Executive Secretary Wagenknecht, the Lithuanian-born and Russian-speaking Alexander Bilan was sent to Soviet Russia as an International Delegate of the party.

L.E. Katterfeld was elected "Alternate International Delegate" by the NEC at its session of Jan. 5, 1920.



Committee on Legality (elected Jan. 3, 1920):

Benjamin Gitlow

Edward Lindgren

Alfred Wagenknecht



Unity Committee (elected Jan. 1920):

Alexander Bilan

Ludwig Katterfeld

Edward Lindgren

Alfred Wagenknecht also attended in an unofficial capacity.


Unity Committee (April 1920):

Max Bedacht

Abram Jakira

Ludwig Katterfeld



Communist Party of America ("old CPA")

The "old CPA" was the organization formed primarily by the Language Federations suspended by the Socialist Party of America during the faction fight of the summer of 1919 as well as those who had given up on the strategy of winning control of the SPA and who sought immediate creation of an American Communist Party affiliated with the Third International in Moscow.

The party was to be governed by an Executive Council of Seven, automatically including the Executive Secretary and Editor of Party Publications, plus five others. All of the members of the Executive Council were to live in the headquarters city of the organization (Chicago) or adjacent cities thereof so that they might meet in person frequently and regularly.

The Executive Council and party headquarters of the old CPA was initially based in Chicago, with headquarters located at 1219 Blue Island Avenue.

First officers of the organization with their former organizational affiliation and hometown appear below. Name in parentheses is first 1920 pseudonym of each.


National Secretary:

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"] (Cleveland, OH)


Editor of Party Publications:

Louis Fraina ["F."] (New York, NY)


Associate Editor:

elected by the Sept. 7, 1919 meeting of the CEC.

I.E. Ferguson (Chicago, IL)


elected by the Nov. 16, 1919 meeting of the CEC.

Jay Lovestone (New York, NY)



International Secretary:

Louis Fraina (New York, NY)

Alternate International Secretary: I.E. Ferguson


International Delegates (4):

I.E. Ferguson (Chicago, IL)

Nicholas Hourwich (New York, NY) -- Russian Federation

C.E. Ruthenberg (Cleveland, OH)

Alexander Stoklitsky (Chicago, IL) -- Russian Federation


Alternate International Delegates: Daniel Elbaum, Alex Bittelman, John Ballam, Jay Lovestone.

Hourwich and Stoklitsky were in Moscow in time for the 2nd Congress of the Comintern in July-Aug. 1920.



Executive Council (2 automatic + 5):

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"] (Cleveland, OH)

Louis Fraina ["F."] (New York, NY)


Charles Dirba ["D. Bunte"] (Minneapolis, MN)

I.E. Ferguson ["Caxton"] (Chicago, IL)

K.B. Karosas (Philadelphia, PA) -- Lithuanian Federation

John Schwartz (Boston, MA) -- Latvian Federation

Harry Wicks (Portland, Oregon)

Wicks came under suspicion for alleged conduct in collaboration with the authorities at the Jan. 20, 1920 meeting of the Central Executive Committee. He was accused of denouncing a rival in the Socialist Party of Oregon, Victor Saulit, to the authorities early in 1919.


Additional Central Executive Committee Members (8):

John J. Ballam (Boston, MA)

Alexander Bittelman ["A. Raphael"] (New York) -- Jewish Federation

Maximilian Cohen ["Charles Bernstein"] (New York, NY)

Daniel Elbaum (Detroit, MI) -- Polish Federation

Nicholas Hourwich ["Andrew"] (New York, NY) -- Russian Federation

Jay Lovestone ["John Langley"] (New York, NY)

Oscar Tyverovsky ["Baldwin"] (New York, NY) -- Russian Federation

Paul Petras (Chicago, IL) -- Hungarian Federation

On Nov. 17, 1919, Petras resigned from the Central Executive Committee and was replaced by Rose Pastor Stokes. The Hungarian Federation left the CPA altogether after the January 1920 raids.

Rose Pastor Stokes ["Sascha"] (New York City)


Alternate Executive Committee Members:

Rose Pastor Stokes, Meyer Lunin, Alex Georgian, Chester Bixby, J.J. Kravsevitch.

Unidentified early 1920 pseudonyms from this group: "Black," "Brown."


Language Federation Secretaries (7)

Fritz "Fred" M. Friedman (German)

Joseph Stilson (Lithuanian)

Joseph Kowalski (Polish)

Alexander Stoklitsky (Russian)

xxxx (Jewish)

xxxx (Latvian)

xxxx (Ukrainian)




A new Executive Council was elected by the CEC at its meeting of Jan. 20, 1920. Although not formally stated in the meeting minutes, this action was a byproduct of a decision to move the national headquarters of the organization from Chicago to New York City. There was a factional implication to this move, as the center of gravity shifted away from the former National Left Wing Council members Ruthenberg and Ferguson on the new New York-based EC.


Executive Council (2 automatic + 5):

C.E. Ruthenberg (CPA National Executive Secretary) ["David Damon"]

I.E. Ferguson (Acting Editor of Party Publications) ["Caxton"]


Maximilian Cohen ["Charles Bernstein"/"Allen"]

Charles Dirba ["D. Bunte"/"Dobin"]

Jay Lovestone ["John Langley"/"Isaacs"]

John Schwartz? --- ["Leopold Brown" / "Braun"]

Alexander Bittelman ["A. Raphael"]

Nicholas Hourwich was actually elected insted of Bittelman, but he resigned the post the day after the election.


Unity Committee (c. Jan. 1920):

Alexander Bittelman ["Raphael"]

Max Cohen ["Charles Bernstein"/"Allen"]

Charles Dirba ["D. Bunte"/"Dobin"]

C.E. Ruthenberg and Isaac Ferguson also attended in an unofficial capacity.


Just ahead of the April 1920 split, the Unity Committee included

Alexander Bittelman ["Raphael"]

Max Cohen ["Charles Bernstein"/"Allen"]

C.E. Ruthenberg ["Damon"]


On April 18, 1920, a split erupted in the CPA over several long-simmering issues, running the gamut from personal antipathy to differences over personnel appointments to disagreement upon the question of unity with the CLP. C.E. Ruthenberg, I.E. Ferguson, and Jay Lovestone left the organization with a group of their supporters centered around the Chicago party organization (taking with them the party treasury!) to pursue their own path, soon leading to unity with the CLP.

With the departure of Bittelman and Ruthenberg as part of the April 1920 split, new members were elected to the Unity Committee, which consisted of the following:

Max Cohen ["Charles Bernstein"/"Allen"]

Charles Dirba ["D. Bunte"/"Dobin"]

Nicholas Hourwich ["Andrew"]


No later than May 1920 (i.e. after the split) sitting on the CEC was:

Pascal Cosgrove ["Jack Ryan"]


The majority group of the CPA continued its active organizational existence and very briefly continued to attempt to forge unity of their own with the CLP.


Acting Executive Secretary:

Charles Dirba ["D. Bunte"] -- Latvian Federation


The meeting of the Central Executive Committee of July 20, 1920, elected a new Executive Secretary. Charles Dirba (now using the pseudonym "C. Dobin") was to serve as the new Executive Secretary's Assistant for at least one month to ease the transition.

Executive Secretary:

Louis Shapiro ["Lawrence Bain"] -- Jewish Federation


It is unclear how this resolved itself, as at the Jan. 11-16, 1921 plenum of the CEC, Dirba was serving again as Executive Secretary and Shapiro sat as a member of the CEC.


At the end of 1920, the following were the top officials of the old CPA:

Central Executive Committee (10):

Maximilian Cohen ["Henry Allen"] -- Jewish Federation

Pascal Cosgrove ["Jack Ryan"] -- English or possibly Latvian Federation

Alfred Edwards ["J. Sullivan"] -- Latvian Federation

Louis Shapiro ["Lawrence Bain"] -- Jewish Federation(?)

Oscar Tyverovsky ["Oscar Baldwin"] -- Russian Federation

J. Wilenkin ["J. Morris"] -- Russian Federation

Meyer Loonin ["M. Greenwald"] -- Jewish Federation

Eugene Bechtold ["James J. Johnson"] -- ??? Federation

??? ["Klints"] -- Jewish Federation

??? ["B. Leon"] -- Lithuanian Federation


Editor of Party Publications:

Maximilian Cohen ["Henry Allen"]


European Representative (In Berlin late April 1920)

Joseph Stilson


CPA Delegates to the 2nd Comintern Congress (July-Aug. 1920)

Louis C. Fraina

Alexander Stoklitsky


Language Federation Secretaries (6)

Morris Kushinsky ["Hoffman"] (Jewish)

Joseph Stilson??? ["Kalnas"] (Lithuanian)

xxxx (Polish)

xxxx ["Kartash"] (Russian)

xxxx ["Brown"] (Latvian)

xxxx (Ukrainian)



In January of 1921, Maximilian Cohen was subjected to a party trial answering charges preferred by Louis Shapiro ["L. Bain"] and J. Wilenkin ["Morris"]. Cohen had been an outspoken critic of factional bickering and did not spare his colleagues on the CEC of the CPA from his harsh criticism. Cohen was charged with having "divulged private conversation and discussions of CEC members" and "created dissension and confusion among the Party membership." Cohen was expelled from the CPA at a meeting held Jan. 15, 1921, but appealed this decision to the Executive Committee of the Communist International, which was generally supportive of his position and seems to have moved him to other party work.


Another CEC election was held at the meeting of Feb. 20, 1921, following the 3rd Convention of the CPA.

Executive Secretary:

Charles Dirba ["C. Dobin"] -- Latvian Federation


Assistant Secretary:

Louis Shapiro ["Lawrence Bain"/"Stone"(?)] -- Jewish Federation


Editorial Committee (3):

John J. Ballam ["John Moore"]

Leonas Pruseika? "B. Leon"/"Leonas"] -- Lithuanian Federation

Louis Shapiro ["Lawrence Bain"/"Stone"(?)] -- Jewish Federation

In mid-July 1921, Louis Shapiro {"L. Bain"] died while en route to the United States on a trip back from Soviet Russia.



??? ---- ['Leopold Brown"]


Assistant Technician:

??? ---- ['Schneider"]


District Organizers:

I [Boston]: "J. Collins"

II [New York City]: George Ashkenuzi ["George Henry"]

III [Philadelphia]: "Gilbert"

IV [Western NY/OH]: "Larsen"

V [Detroit]: "Jackson"

VI [Chicago]: "Greenwald"



Unity Committee (c. Feb. 1921)

Charles Dirba ["Dobin"]

Oscar Tyverovsky ["Baldwin"]

J. Wilenkin ["Morris"]



At the time of the merger with the UCP to form the (unified) Communist Party of America in May 1921, the paid officials of the (old) CPA were:

Executive Secretary:

Charles Dirba ["C. Dobin"] -- Latvian Federation


General Assistant in Secretarial and Technical Department:

??? ["A. Dales"]



??? ["J. Klein"] -- Latvian Federation


Assistant Technician:

??? ["Schneider"]



John J. Ballam ["John Moore"]


Assistant Editor:

??? ["A. McLean"]


District Organizers (6):

I [Boston]: "J. Collins" -- Latvian Federation

II [New York]: George Ashkenuzi ["George Henry"] -- Russian Federation

III [Philadelphia]: "C. Markus"

IV [Western NY/Cleveland]: "J. Anders";

V [Detroit]: Eugene Bechtold ["James J. Johnson"]

VI [Chicago]: Meyer Lunin ["Greenwald"] -- Jewish Federation


There were also paid Assistant DOs in Districts I, II, III, and V. Total payroll of the CEC was 16 people.

The Federations also had paid officials and District Organizers of their own.




United Communist Party of America (UCP)

The UCP was the product of the unification of the Communist Labor Party with a Chicago-centered breakaway faction of the old CPA featuring prominently the 3 man Unity Committee of C.E. Ruthenberg, Isaac Ferguson, Leonid Belsky. The organization was formed at the first Bridgman, Michigan Convention, held May 26-31, 1920.


Executive Secretary:

Alfred Wagenknecht ["A.B. Meyer"/"Paul Holt"] (ex-CLP)



Edward Lindgren ["James Flynn"] (ex-CLP)


Party Editor:

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"/"Karl Rose"] (ex-old CPA)


Associate Editors:

Max Bedacht ["Brown"] (ex-CLP)

James P. Cannon ["Dawson"] (ex-CLP)

Isaac E. Ferguson ["Caxton"/"G.E. Haskins"] (ex-old CPA)


Technical Director

Ludwig Katterfeld ["Tom Alden"/"J. Klein"] (ex-CLP)


Defense Director:

Isaac E. Ferguson ["Caxton"/"G.E. Haskins"] (ex-old CPA)


International Secretary:

Isaac E. Ferguson ["Caxton"/"G.E. Haskins"] (ex-old CPA)

Alternate: Max Bedacht ["Brown"] (ex-CLP)


Central Executive Committee Members (10):

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"/"Karl Rose"] (ex-old CPA)

XXXXX ["Scott"] (ex-old CPA)

XXXXX ["Reinhart"] (ex-old CPA)

Louis Hendin ["Delion"/"Ed Victor"] (ex-old CPA) - resigned Nov. 10, 1920

Isaac E. Ferguson ["Caxton"/"G.E. Haskins"] (ex-old CPA)

Max Bedacht ["Brown"/"L.Simon?"] (ex-CLP)

(not to be confused with "Leopold Brown" of the CEC of the old CPA)

James P. Cannon ["Dawson"] (ex-CLP)

Ludwig Katterfeld ["Tom Alden"/"J. Klein"] (ex-CLP)

Edward Lindgren ["James Flynn"/"Joseph McGee"] (ex-CLP)

Alfred Wagenknecht ["A.B. Meyer"] (ex-CLP)

Alternate Central Executive Committee Members (in order of votes received): S.M. Krunislav ["Zemlin"] (ex-CPA); Abram Jakira ["Dubner" ] (ex-CLP); "Stone" (ex-CPA) promoted 11/20/20 to replace Hendin; Edgar Owens ["Jones"] (ex-CLP); "Kerker" ["Korker"] (ex-CPA); "Malcolm" (ex-CLP); Alex Georgian ["Kazbeck"] (ex-CPA); Walter Brustor ["Logan"] (ex-CLP)


UCP Delegates to the 2nd Comintern Congress (July-Aug. 1920)

Alexander Bilan (Sent by CLP)

Eadmonn MacAlpine (Sent by CLP)

John Reed - Died Oct. 1920

Edward Lindgren -last to arrive (Sent by UCP)



There was a party convention held from Dec. 24 until Jan. 2, 1921 at Kingston, New York. A new CEC was elected at that meeting.


Executive Secretary:

Alfred Wagenknecht ["Paul Holt"]


Central Executive Committee Members

(post-Kingston pseudonyms)

Israel Amter ["Grove"]

Abram Jakira ["Duboff"]

L.E. Katterfeld? ["Bell"]

Alfred Wagenknecht? ["Altman"]

??? ["Williams"] -- Croatian from Cleveland?

??? ["Adams"] -- from Chicago (Editorial Commitee)

??? ["Flat"] -- from Chicago (Editorial Commitee)

??? [???]

??? [???]

??? [???]


Elected at the Kingston Convention were two individuals from the Chicago District, pseudonyms "Adams" and "Flat." These two attempted to resign at the convention when their factional ally Jay Lovestone failed to garner the majority support necessary to win a seat (his role in the trial of Harry Winitsky being a matter of some controversy). These two resignations were explicitly rejected by the convention. "Adams" and "Flat" went to New York, but soon attempted to resign again. These resignations were again rejected by the CEC; but the duo headed home for Chicago regardless. A meeting of the Chicago District Committee instructed "Adams" and "Flat" to return, where they once again assumed their seats on the CEC, serving on the Editorial Board. This proved to be short-lived, however, as an editorial controversy prompted the pair to resign from the Editorial Board rather than submit to the decision of the CEC on the (unspecified) matter. The pair were finally removed from the CEC and suspended from Party activity for 3 months for breach of discipline.


Central Executive Committee Members (10?):

Israel Amter ["Ford"] (English Editor)

Walter Brustor ["Milner"] (Educational Director, in Cleveland)

James P. Cannon ["James Cook"] (Press Service)

A. Jakira ["A. Duboff"/"A. Dubner"] (Russian Editor)

Ludwig E. Katterfeld ["Elk"] (Educational & Legal Propaganda)

Joseph Zack Kornfeder ["J.P. Collins"] (Industrial Department)

Edward Lindgren ["James Flynn"] (National Organizer)

Alfred Wagenknecht ["Paul Holt"] (Executive Secretary)

xxxx ["Webber"] (District Organizer 2 [NYC])


Early in 1921 (c. January), the CEC created 4 sub-committees of itself, called "Departments": (1) Organization, YCP, and Defense; (2) Agrairan, Research, and Education; (3) Editorial and Literature; and (4) Technical [physical production of underground propaganda, etc.]. One or 2 CEC members were placed at the head of each.

According to a Bureau of Investigation report based upon the surveillance of an infiltrator, pseudonym "Mike Benton," Harry F. Keas was called from Mason City, Iowa to Chicago by a cable dispatched on Jan. 6, 1921 by Edgar Owens. It was intended for Keas to serve as cartoonist and assistant editor on the staff of The Toiler and as a member of the CEC of the UCP, according to the informant.


International Delegate:

Max Bedacht ["Marshall"]


Technical Department:

xxxx ["Ehrhart"] (Bookkeeper and tech work)

Walter Brustor ["Logan"] (Shipper)

Noah London ["Smith"] (Editor, Jewish Legal Organ)

[wife of A.S. Edwards?] ["Davis"] (Editorial Work)


Unity Committee (c. Feb. 1921)

Ludwig Katterfeld ["Tom Alden"]

Alfred Wagenknecht ["Paul Holt"]

=??? ["James McGee"]

"McGee" was a respected member of the CEC who was NOT: Amter, Bedacht, Bilan, Hendin, Jakira, Katterfeld, Lindgren, or Wagenknecht. Most likely candidates were Jay Lovestone or Joseph Zack.


(unified) Communist Party of America

The "unified CPA" was a new organization born of the coerced union of the UCP and the old CPA. The official name of the organization was "Communist Party of America (Section of the Communist International)." As was the case with the two component organizations, the unified CPA was an underground political organization, attempting to avoid state repression by conducting meetings and distributing communications to members in secret and making use of pseudonyms for participants.

The unified CPA was governed by a Central Executive Committee consisting of five members hailing from each of the two constituent organizations. After a short period of time, two of the former members of the old CPA began voting with the five fromer members of the UCP as a bloc, contributing to a shift in orientation which resulted in a new split by the so-called "Central Caucus" late in November of 1921.


Executive Secretaries of the unified CPA:

Charles Dirba ["C. Dow"] -- May 30, 1921 to July 27, 1921.

L.E. Katterfeld ["J. Carr"] -- July 27, 1921 to Oct. 15, 1921.

William Weinstone ["G. Lewis"] -- Oct. 15, 1921 to Feb. 22, 1922.

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"] -- Feb. 22, 1922 to Bridgman (Aug. 22, 1922).

Max Bedacht ["James Marshall"] -- "Acting" Sec. in June through first 3 weeks July 1922.

Bedacht was elected Assistant Secretary to serve in Lovestone's absense at the CEC meeting of May 29, 1922.

L.E. Katterfeld ["J. Carr"] -- elected "Provisional" Sec. Aug. 23, 1922 to Sept. 5, 1922.

Abram Jakira ["J. Miller"] -- Sept. 5, 1922 to dissolution on April 7, 1923.


Central Executive Committee Members (10):

elected at the May 1921 Joint Unity Convention, Woodstock, NY.

George Ashkenuzi ["Kelly"] -- ex-old CPA

John J. Ballam ["Curtis"] -- ex-old CPA

Charles Dirba ["C. Dow"] -- ex-old CPA

Joseph Stilson ["Edward Ray"/"Reilly"] -- ex-old CPA

J. Wilenkin ["Paul"] -- ex-old CPA


James P. Cannon ["James Cook"] -- ex-UCP

Abram Jakira ["Post"] -- ex-UCP

Ludwig E. Katterfeld ["John Carr"] -- ex-UCP

Joseph Zack Kornfeder ["A.C. Griffith"] -- ex-UCP

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"] -- ex-UCP


replacing Jakira was

William W. Weinstone ["Turner"] -- ex-UCP


International Delegates:

Robert Minor ["Davidson"/"Ballister"] -- ex-UCP

Oscar Tyverovsky ["O. Baldwin"] -- ex-old CPA


After the Fall 1921 split of the Central Caucus faction (marked by the departure of Ashkenuzi, Ballam, and Dirba to the new organization) and through the first half of 1922, the 10 member CEC included the following:


Central Executive Committee Members (10):

(from December 1921)

Max Bedacht ["James A. Marshall"/"Braun"/"Brown"]

(replaced Katterfeld, who went to Moscow, from Nov. 3, 1921)

Alexander Bittelman ["A. Raphael"]

James P. Cannon ["Golden"/"James Cook"]

Joseph Zack Kornfeder ["A.C. Griffith"]

Meyer Lunin ["M. Green"]

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"]

Joseph Stilson ["Edward Ray"/"Reilly"]

Arne Swabeck ["J. Lansing"]

William Weinstone ["G. Lewis"]

J. Wilenkin ["Paul"]


International Delegate:

Ludwig E. Katterfeld ["John Carr"]


Editorial Committee (3):

(up to March 16, 1922)

Alexander Bittelman ["A. Raphael"] -- OO Editor

James P. Cannon ["Golden"/"James Cook"]

Robert Minor ["James Ballister"]


At the March 16, 1922, meeting of the CEC, a motion was made to censure editor Bittelman for failing to follow the decision of the Editorial Committee not to run a Comintern document on the front cover of The Communist. When this motion failed, Cannon and Minor resigned their positions on the Committee.


April 24, 1922 CEC Reorganization.

At the meeting of the Central Executive Committee of April 17, 1922, it was decided to reorganize the CEC by coopting Robert Minor ["Ballister"], Earl Browder ["Dixon"], and Alfred Wagenknecht ["Duffy"]. To make room for these individuals, three sitting members of the CEC would resign. Offers to resign were tendered by Loonin, Weinstone, Lovestone, Cannon, Bedacht, Zack-Kornfeder, and Bittelman. After a series of votes, the resignations of Weinstone, Lunin, and Zack-Kornfeder were accepted. In addition, Ludwig Katterfeld had returned from Moscow and again sat on the CEC from the April 24, 1922, session. This resulted in the following CEC:

Central Executive Committee Members (10):

(from April 24, 1922)

Max Bedacht ["James A. Marshall"/"Braun"/"Brown"]

Alexander Bittelman ["A. Raphael"]

Earl Browder ["Joseph Dixon"/"W. Ward"]

Ludwig Katterfeld ["John Carr"/"Tom Elk"]

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"]

Robert Minor ["James Ballister"]

Joseph Stilson ["Edward Ray"/"Edward Riley"]

Arne Swabeck ["J. Lansing"]

Alfred Wagenknecht ["U.P. Duffy"/"A.B. Martin"]

J. Wilenkin ["Paul"/"J. Morris"]


International Delegate:

(Elected unanimously by CEC April 24, 1922)

James P. Cannon ["Golden"/"James Cook"]

(delegate to RILU and rep on expanded ECCI)


The CEC meeting of April 26, 1922, upon the motion of Earl Browder, voted to establish an important division of the CEC into 3 subcommittees: the Industrial Committee (3), the Organization Committee (3), and the Political Committee (consisting of the remaining resident members of the CEC). The Industrial Committee continued as previously established (Swabeck, Foster -- who was actually not a member of the CEC, and Ward). Elected to the Organization Committee were Katterfeld, Lovestone, and Stilson. This left the following as members of the Political Committee: Bedacht, Bittelman, Minor, Wagenknecht, and Wilenkin. It should be noted that the 3 Industrial Committee members hailed from Chicago, while the Political Committee sat in New York -- and continuation and precursor to factional strife centered around these two cities.


Central Executive Committee Members (10):

(from mid-May 1922)

Jim Cannon was sent to Moscow in the middle of 1922 as a delegate to RILU and rep on expanded ECCI; Alex Bittelman also went to Moscow. Alfred Wagenknecht left CEC, served as Secretary of Friends of Soviet Russia. Ben Gitlow and C.E. Ruthenberg were released from prison on bail, pending appeal of their sentences. The CEC then consisted of:

Max Bedacht ["James A. Marshall"/"Braun"/"Brown"] -Assistant Sec.

Earl Browder ["Joseph Dixon"/"W. Ward"]

Benjamin Gitlow ["Low"]

Ludwig Katterfeld ["J. Carr"/"Tom Elk"]

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"] -- Secretary

Robert Minor ["James Ballister"]

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"]

Joseph Stilson ["Edward Ray"/"Edward Riley"]

Arne Swabeck ["J. Lansing"]

J. Wilenkin ["Paul"/"J. Morris"]


At the May 31, 1922, session of the CEC, personnel on the 3 subcommittees of the CEC were juggled. Industrial Organizer for the 3 Northeastern districts Ben Gitlow was placed on the Organization Committee in place of Executive Secretary Jay Lovestone and C.E. Ruthenberg was placed on the Political Committee in place of Alex Bittelman.

Thus the subcommittee personnel in the Summer of 1922, leading up to the Bridgman Convention, was:

Industrial Committee (3 -- in Chicago):

(continuing previous committee, by decision of the CEC April 26, 1922)

Earl Browder ["Ward"]

William Z. Foster ["Dorsey"]

Arne Swabeck ["J. Lansing"]


Organization Committee (3 -- in New York):

(reflecting CEC change made May 31, 1922)

Benjamin Gitlow ["Low"]

Ludwig Katterfeld ["J. Carr"/"Tom Elk"]

Joseph Stilson ["Edward Ray"/"Edward Riley"]


Political Committee (4 -- in New York):

(reflecting CEC change made May 31, 1922)

Max Bedacht ["James A. Marshall"/"Braun"/"Brown"] -- Asst. Sec.

Robert Minor ["James Ballister"]

C.E. Ruthenberg ["David Damon"]

J. Wilenkin ["Paul"/"J. Morris"]


not on subcommittee (in Europe in June-July 1922)

Jay Lovestone ["L.C. Wheat"] -- Secretary


In addition there was a 3 member Editorial Committee in charge of the party press:

Editorial Committee (3):

(Elected by CEC June 1, 1922)

Max Bedacht ["James A. Marshall"/"Brown"/"Braun"] -- Editor

Benjamin Gitlow ["Low"]

Robert Minor ["James Ballister"]



The CEC at its July 27, 1922 session voted to send Arne Swabeck to Moscow as the CPA's rep to the Executive Committee of the Comintern and to RILU, replacing Jim Cannon. Cannon ignored orders to come home, winning approval of his decision to stay in Moscow from friends in the ECCI apparatus. This created a vacancy on the CEC, which was filled by:

Thomas J. O'Flaherty ["Ganly"]


1921-22 Central Caucus faction's "Communist Party of America"

The "Central Caucus" was organized by the three suspended members of the CEC of the unified CPA -- Charles Dirba, John Ballam, and George Ashkenuzi. The group had strong support amongst various Language Federation groups in the east -- about 95% of which came from the Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Russian, Latvian, Polish, and Jewish Federations. The group sought to preserve the underground nature of the party against what was viewed as a suicidal opening and to preserve the independent existence of the affiliated Language Federations in the face of their emasculation.

The Central Caucus faction had an affiliated Legal Political Party called the "United Toilers Party."

The three members of the CEC who formed the factional leadership provisionally took up the following roles:


Executive Secretary:

John J. Ballam ["Curtis"/"Moore"]


Treasurer / Accounting Department:

Charles Dirba ["Dow"]


Press / Technical Department:

George Ashkenuzi ["Kelly"/"Henry"]



The organization formally established itself and conducted elections of a 7 member Central Executive Committee were held at the "Emergency Convention" of Jan. 7-11, 1922.


Executive Secretary:

[wife of A.S. Edwards] -- "J. Davis"


Special International Delegate:

John J. Ballam ["Curtis"/"Moore"]


Central Executive Committee (7):

John Ballam ["John Moore"]

"Nicols" -- Ukrainian Federation

"Leopold Brown"

George Ashkenuzi ["George Henry"]

"Golos" -- Russian Federation

"Wilson" -- Boston District

"Singer" -- Philadelphia District

(other pseudonyms used, Jan. 20, 1922: "A. Frick," "John Harris," S. Flory," "Taylor," "Austin," "Jim Smith.")


Alternates: A.S. Edwards ["Sullivan"], "Kain," "Mars," "B. Leon" [Leonas Pruseika?], "Benjamin."


Auditing Committee (3):





1922-23 unified Communist Party of America

The August 1922 Bridgman Convention saw the election of new officers of the CPA -- complete with a new set of pseudonyms.

Bridgman marked the overthrow of one administration with another -- the pro-legalization independent wing typified by Executive Secretary Lovestone, Jim Cannon, and Max Bedacht was reduced to minority status, with a more hardline underground-oriented faction (the so-called "Goose" caucus) winning majority status and control of the CPA.

The Bridgman Convention elected a total of 11 to the CEC -- 6 representatives of the "Goose" caucus, elected by that group; 3 representatives of the minority "Independent" caucus, elected by that group; and 2 choices supported by both caucuses unanimously. This 11 member initial CEC consisted of the following:

James Cannon ["Cook"] -- Independent

Benjamin Gitlow ["Low"/"John Pierce"] -- Goose

Abram Jakira ["J. Miller"] -- Goose

Ludwig Katterfeld ["Thomas"] -- Goose

Jay Lovestone ["Lloyd"] -- Independent

Robert Minor ["Albers"] -- Goose

John Pepper ["Short"] -- unanimous choice?

C.E. Ruthenberg ["Damon"/"Brenton"] -- Independent

Alfred Wagenknecht ["Arnold"] -- Goose

??? ["Dan"]

??? ["Sommers"]


However, due to the unresolved legal status of Ruthenberg and Gitlow (out on bail) and the fact that James Cannon was in Moscow, these 3 slots were occupied by the following substitutes:

Israel Amter ["Grove] -- Goose

Max Bedacht ["Sterling"] -- Independent

??? ["George"] -- [faction?]


Starting with the Sept. 5, 1922 session, by decision of the CEC the sessions were also attended by a representative of the Young Communist League as the 12th regular delegate:

??? ["Blair"] -- YCL


The Sept. 5, 1922 meeting also decided to send Ludwig Katterfeld ["Thomas"] to Moscow for a second stint as the Party's representative at the CI, replacing Arne Swabeck ["Lansing"], whom the Lovestone-Independent majority faction had sent at the end of July (getting a jump on the Bridgman Convention and presenting it with a fait accompli), replacing Cannon.



On Sept. 30, 1922, the formal liquidation of the organization of the Central Caucus-CPA-Opposition was announced in a circular letter from Executive Secretary Jakira to the members of both the regular CPA and the Opposition. Under terms of the agreement, 2 members of the Opposition were added to the Central Executive Committee of the reunited party with voice and vote. These two members were elected by the final convention of the Opposition, held the week previously in New York. Two alternates were also elected. District Executive Committees were also supplemented with additional delegates from the opposition, ranging from 1 extra member in several districts to 5 additional members in the Chicago district.





The Political, Industrial, and Editorial work of both the CPA and WPA were combined by the action of the CPA's CEC on Jan. 26, 1923. While underground work was formally to continue, in practical terms the two parties began unification on an "overground" basis from that date.

The business between the periodic meetings of the Executive Council was handled by four specialized subcommittees: Political, Organizational, Industrial, and Editorial. The composition of each of these committees is noted below:

Executive Secretary:

Abram Jakira ["J. Miller"]


International Delegates (5):

Max Bedacht ["Marshall"]

Arne Swabeck ["Lansing"]

??? -- ["Dan"]

??? -- ["Pullman"]

??? -- ["Star"] - Reporter on YCI Congress


Secretariat (3):

Secretaries of three main committees: Legal Political Party, Party, and Political.

Abram Jakira ["J. Miller"] -- Party

C.E. Ruthenberg ["Brenton"] -- LPP

John Pepper ["Short"] -- Political


Executive Council (17) & CEC (13):

Israel Amter ["Grove"] - CEC

Max Bedacht ["Marshall"/"Sterling"] - Political Committee

James P. Cannon ["James Cook"] - CEC, Industrial Committee

William Z. Foster ["Blake"] - CEC, Industrial Committee

Benjamin Gitlow ["John Pierce"] - CEC, Political & Industrial Committees

A. Jakira ["J. Miller"] - CEC, Organization Committee, LPP Chairman

Ludwig Katterfeld ["Thomas"] - Organization Committee

Ludwig Lore ["Young"] - Political Committee

Jay Lovestone ["Lloyd"] - CEC, Political Committee, Editor of "B" and publicist

John Pepper ["Short"] - CEC, Political Committee Chairman

C.E. Ruthenberg ["Brenton"] - CEC, Organization Committee, Party Chairman

Robert Minor ["Albers"] - CEC, Editorial Committee, Editor of "L" and official organ

??? -- ["Blair"] - CEC, Organization Committee -(the YCL delegate to CEC)

??? -- ["Dally"] - Editorial Committee

??? -- ["McLeod"] - CEC

??? ["John Robertson"] - Organization Committee

??? --- ["Summers"] - CEC

??? --- ["Edwin Trent"] - Industrial Committee (ex-Central Caucus-CPA)

??? --- ["Woodin"] - CEC, Editorial Committee



pseudonyms above likely include:

Alexander Bittelman ["Williams"]

William F. Dunne

Marion Emerson

J. Louis Engdahl

Edward Lindgren

Theo Maki

Joseph Manley

M.J. Olgin

Alfred Wagenknecht ["Arnold"]

Harry M. Wicks


Industrial Organizer (1):

??? -- ["Mathews"]


Industrial Department:

??? -- ["Grant"]

??? -- ["Mathews"]

??? -- ["Schaffer"]


Workers Party of America (WPA)

The WPA was an open organization formed between the bulk of the unified CPA and various individuals and left-wing groups coming from the Socialist Party of America. Eventually the underground CPA was replaced in full by the WPA, which changed its name to Workers (Communist) Party of America.


1922 Workers Party of America

CEC elected at the Founding Convention, New York, Dec. 24-26, 1921. Officers elected at the first meeting of the CEC, New York, Dec. 27, 1921-Jan.4, 1922. Daily operations were conducted by a subset of the officers and CEC called the "Administrative Council.


National Chairman:

James P. Cannon


Executive Secretary:

Caleb Harrison (to May 1922)

Early in May 1922, Caleb Harrison stepped aside to become a travelling "National Organizer" for the WPA, making way for C.E. Ruthenberg, who was released from prison in New York on bail April 24, 1922. This decision was made by the WPA's Administrative Council and confirmed by a unanimous mail ballot of the Central Executive Committee. While at a glance this sudden insertion of Ruthenberg as Executive Secretary may seem "unconstitutional," in actuallity Art. VII, Sec. 3 of the WPA Constitution does not state that the Executive Secretary must necessarily come from the ranks of the CEC, only that the CEC is responsible for electing the Executive Secretary.

While in the first few months of the organization it seems that Cannon and Harrison shared the role of Chief Executive, from the time of Ruthenberg's arrival on the scene, there is no doubt that the Executive Secretary was the position handing day-to-day operations of the WPA. William Kruse remained active in the role of Assistant Executive Secretary, taking the helm when Ruthenberg periodically departed to make speaking engagements.


Executive Secretary:

C.E. Ruthenberg (from May 1922)


Assistant Executive Secretary:

William F. Kruse


Director, Lyceum and Literature:

Elmer T. Allison


Agrarian Organizer:

Harold L. Ware



William F. Dunne

J. Louis Engdahl

Jay Lovestone


Central Executive Committee (17):

The following committee lists per a typewritten document in Hoover Archives, Lovestone Papers, box 200, folder 16.

Elmer T. Allison (Ohio)

John Anderson (New York)

Henry Askeli (Illinois)

Alexander Bittelman (New York)

James P. Cannon (Kansas)

J. Louis Engdahl (Illinois)

Caleb Harrison (Illinois)

Meyer Loonin (Michigan)

Ludwig Lore (New York)

Jay Lovestone (New York)

Robert Minor (New York)

Marguerite Prevey (Ohio)

J.B. Salutsky (New York)

Arne Swabeck (Illinois)

Alexander Trachtenberg (New York)

William Weinstone (New York)

J. Wilenkin (New York)


Alternates (in order listed on document)

William Kruse (Illinois)

Charles Baker (Ohio)

Edgar Owens (Illinois)

Harold Ware (New York)

Jack Carney (Illinois)

Earl Browder (Kansas)

Thomas J. O'Flaherty (New York)



CEC Subcommittee on Policy

Bittelman, Cannon, Lore, Trachtenberg, Wilenkin, Anderson, Minor.

CEC Subcommittee on Organization

Lovestone, Engdahl, Allison, Weinstone. Ex-officio: Harrison, Kruse.

Editorial Board of Monthly Workers' Review

Bittelman, Hartman, Lore, Lovestone, Minor (Chief Editor), Olgin, Poyntz, Trachtenberg, Wilenkin.


Turchin, Woods.

On Starting a Daily Paper and Maintaining the Weekly

Engdahl, Allison, Heller, Ware, Lovestone.

On Activity of Party Members in Trade Unions and the TUEL

Wishnack, Anderson, Swabeck, Kruse, Harrison.


Glassberg, Trachtenberg, Weinstone, Lore, Bittelman, Poyntz.

Finance (3)

Eugene Schoen (only name listed)

Woman's Activity

Anderson, Jeanette Pearl, Allison, Julia Poyntz, Maryx Heaton Vorse.

Young Workers

Oliver Carlson, Schoenberg, Kruse.

Agrarian Problems

Minor, Trachtenberg, Allison. Ex-officio: Ware.

National Defense Audit

Lore, Kruse, Allison


1923 Workers Party of America

Elected at the 2nd Convention, New York, Dec. 24-26, 1922.


Executive Secretary:

(Elected by Central Executive Committee)

C.E. Ruthenberg


Executive Council (11):

Elected by Central Executive Committee Jan. 3, 1923, "to function between the sessions of the CEC." The Executive Council instructed the Political Committee, not vice versa (see minutes of May 7-8, 1923 meeting, for example).

Alexander Bittelman

James P. Cannon

William F. Dunne

Marion Emerson

J. Louis Engdahl

Edward Lindgren

Ludwig Lore

Theo Maki

M.J. Olgin

C.E. Ruthenberg

Harry M. Wicks


Central Executive Committee (25):

Although the CEC selected the Executive Council, it was a decidedly less important decision-making institution in 1923. One member elected by the NEC of the YWL.

Israel Amter

Max Bedacht

Alexander Bittelman

B. Borisoff

Fahle Burman

James P. Cannon

William F. Dunne

Marion Emerson

J. Louis Engdahl

Abraham Jakira

Ludwig E. Katterfeld

William F. Kruse

Edward Lindgren

Jay Lovestone

Robert Minor

A. Nastasievsky

M.J. Olgin

John Pepper

C.E. Ruthenberg

Rose Pastor Stokes

Alexander Trachtenberg

Alfred Wagenknecht

William W. Weinstone

Harry M. Wicks




1924 Workers Party of America

Elected at the Third Convention of the WPA, Chicago,Dec. 30, 1923 to Jan. 2, 1924. Officers elected by CEC at plenum of Jan. 3, 1924.


Executive Secretary:

C.E. Ruthenberg



James P. Cannon

Cannon resigned and was replaced by William Z. Foster at the Feb. 15-16, 1924 CEC plenum.


Moscow Representative of WPA to ECCI:

Israel Amter


Moscow Representative of TUEL to Profintern:

Charles E. "Charlie" Scott [Karlis E. Jansons]


CEC Representative to the CEC of the YWL:

J. Louis Engdahl


Central Executive Committee Members (13):

Alexander Bittelman *

Earl Browder *

Fahle Burman *

James P. Cannon *

William F. Dunne *

J. Louis Engdahl

William Z. Foster *

[temporarily replaced by George Halonen when Foster in Moscow -- May]

Benjamin Gitlow

Ludwig Lore *

Jay Lovestone

John Pepper

[temporarily replaced by Max Bedacht when Foster in Moscow -- May]

C.E. Ruthenberg

Martin Abern (YWL) *


* -indicates Foster-Cannon faction member or supporter (Lore). The Chicago-based members were constituted an "Executive Council" to meet periodically in between the regular monthly meetings of the CEC.


Political Committee (7):

Earl Browder *

James P. Cannon *

William F. Dunne *

William Z. Foster *

Jay Lovestone

John Pepper

C.E. Ruthenberg


Organization Committee (5):

Martin Abern *

James P. Cannon *

William Z. Foster *

John Pepper

C.E. Ruthenberg


Secretariat (3):

James P. Cannon *

John Pepper

C.E. Ruthenberg


Education Committee (3):

Max Bedacht

Alexander Bittelman *

James P. Cannon *

The Education Committee was formed in May 1924.


Daily Worker Management Committee (5):

Earl Browder *

William Dunne *

Moritz Loeb

C.E. Ruthenberg

Matti Tenhunen

The Daily Worker Management Committee was formed in May 1924.


Director, Literature Department:

Nicholas Dozenberg



1925-27 Workers (Communist) Party

The Officials of the WPA elected at the 4th National Convention of Aug. 21-30, 1925 were allocated according to faction with the Comintern Representative Sergei Gusev breaking deadlocks.


Executive Secretary:

Charles E. Ruthenberg

Ruthenberg died of a ruptured appendix on March 2, 1927.

(Davenport collection)


The "Parity Commission" of 1925:

According to the testimony of Jim Cannon, in 1925 the Comintern decided to set up a "Parity Commission" consisting of three members of each faction, with CI Rep Gusev sitting as the "Independent Chairman." Cannon writes:

"After the arrival of Gusev in Chicago and the setting up of the Parity Commission...the elected Central Committee and its Political Committee, as such, virtually ceased to exist. All questions of party policy, organization matters, convention preparations, and everything else were decided by the Parity Commission, with Gusev casting the deciding vote of any disagreements."

(Cannon: The First 10 Years of American Communism, pp. 133-134),


"Independent Chairman":

Sergei Gusev ["P.Green"/"Gray"] (Comintern Rep)


Parity Commission Members (6):

Max Bedacht (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Alexander Bittelman (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

James P. Cannon (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

William Z. Foster (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Jay Lovestone (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Charles E. Ruthenberg (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)



Central Executive Committee Members (20):

Martin Abern (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Philip Aronberg (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Alexander Bittelman (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Earl R. Browder (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Fahle Burman (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

James P. Cannon (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

William F. Dunne (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

William Z. Foster (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Bud Reynolds (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)

Jack Stachel (Foster-Cannon-Bittelman majority group)


John J. Ballam (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Max Bedacht (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Louis J. Engdahl (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Benjamin Gitlow (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Jay Lovestone (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Robert Minor (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Charles E. Ruthenberg (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

H. Schmies (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

William W. Weinstone (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)

Charles White (Pepper-Ruthenberg-Lovestone minority group)


1927-29 Workers (Communist) Party

The Officials of the WPA elected at the 5th National Convention of Sept. 1-6, 1927:


Secretary of the Political Committee:

Jay Lovestone


Secretary of the Trade Union Department:

William Z. Foster


Central Executive Committee Members (37):

[Majority group had 22 of 37 seats on the CEC]

Israel Amter (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Max Bedacht (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Benjamin Gitlow (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

J. Louis Engdahl (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

K.H. Haikinen (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Abram Jakira (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Alfred Knutson (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

William F. Kruse (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Benjamin Lifshitz (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Jay Lovestone (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Robert Mahoney (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Robert Minor (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

M.J. Olgin (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

John Pepper (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Henry Puro (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Jack Stachel (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

John Schmies (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Norman Tallentire (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Alexander Trachtenberg (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

A. Tred (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

William H. White (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)

Bertram D. Wolfe (Pepper-Lovestone majority group)


Martin Abern (Cannon minority group)

Philip Aronberg (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

John J. Ballam (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Alexander Bittelman (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Earl R. Browder (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

James P. Cannon (Cannon minority group)

William F. Dunne (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

William Z. Foster (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Bud Reynolds (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

John W. Johnstone (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Charles Krumbein (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Arne Swabeck (Cannon minority group)

Alfred Wagenknecht (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

William W. Weinstone (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Joseph Zack [Kornfeder] (Foster-Bittelman minority group)


Candidate members to the CEC elected by the 5th Convention included: Alex Bail, Ellis Petersen, H.M. Wicks, Anna David, Anthony Bimba, Herbert Benjamin, Rudolph Baker, Hyman Costrell, Manuel Gomez [Charles Phillips], and Clarence A. Hathaway.

Alternate members to the CEC elected by the 5th Convention included: Biedenkapp, Bradon, Borich, Borisoff, Cantor, Melech Epstein, Fislerman, Peters, Juliet Poyntz, Gus Sklar, Walker, Albert Weisbord, Shauchno Epstein, Gus Halonen, Otis, Max Shachtman, Cowl, Bloomfield, Kerr, Gebert, and Grecht.

Central Commission elected by the 5th Convention included: Jacob Mindel, K. Radzl, Joe Brand, Max Lerner, and Meyer Lunin.


James Cannon and his associates were expelled for Trotskyism on Oct. 27, 1928.

They formed The Communist League of America and began issuing their official organ, The Militant, on Nov. 15, 1928.


1929 Communist Party of the USA

Elected at the 6th National Convention, March 1929


According to The Daily Worker of March 16, 1929, a plenary session of the Central Executive Committee named a new 3 person Secretariat consisting of the following "coequal secretaries":


Executive Secretary:

Benjamin Gitlow (Lovestone majority group)


Secretary of the Trade Union Department:

William Z. Foster (Foster-Bittelman minority group)


Secretary of Agitation and Propaganda:

Max Bedacht (Lovestone majority group)

It was Bedacht who delivered the Political Report of the Central Committee to the 7th Convention in June 1930, indicating that it was he who was primus inter pares among the three member Secretariat, although Foster was in jail at the time.



Central Executive Committee Members (44):

Article in DW 3/11/29 stated there were 44 members, only 42 listed in print, as follows:

Israel Amter (Lovestone majority group)

John J. Ballam (XXX)

Max Bedacht (Lovestone majority group)

Chester W. Bitley (XXX)

Bradley (XXX)

Cyril Briggs (XXX)

Earl Browder (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

J. Morris (XXX)

Lena Chernenko (XXX)

Anna David (XXX)

Ellen Dawson (XXX)

J. Louis Engdahl (XXX)

William Z. Foster (Foster-Bittelman minority group)

Tony Gerlach (XXX)

Otto Hall (XXX)

John Henry (XXX)

Leo Hofbauer (XXX)

Otto E. Huiswouod (XXX)

Niels Kjar (XXX)

E. Koppel (XXX)

Krutis (XXX)

William F. Kruse (XXX)

Benjamin Lifshitz (XXX)

Jay Lovestone (Lovestone majority group)

Lupin (XXX)

William Miller (XXX)

N. Minutella (XXX)

Robert Minor (XXX)

M.J. Olgin (XXX)

Patrick (XXX)

Henry Puro (XXX)

John Schmies (XXX)

Frank Sepich (XXX)

Dan H. Slinger (XXX)

Jack Stachel (XXX)

Norman Tallentire (XXX)

Frank Vrataric (XXX)

Albert Weisbord (XXX)

W.J. White (XXX)

William W. Weinstone (XXX)

Bert Wolfe (XXX)

Charles S. Zimmerman (Lovestone majority group)


CEC Candidate (Alternate) Members (22):

Alexander Trachtenberg (XXX)

Harry M. Wicks (XXX)

K.E. Heikkinen (XXX)

Pat Devine (XXX)

Abram Jakira (XXX)

Juliet Stuart Poyntz (XXX)

Bert Miller (XXX)

Alex Bail (XXX)

Anthony Bimba (XXX)

Herbert Benjamin (XXX)

Alfred Knutson (XXX)

Ella Reeve Bloor (XXX)

Charles Novak (XXX)

Ed Welsh (XXX)

Herbert Zam (XXX)

J. Sorenson (XXX)

Fred G. Biedenkapp (XXX)

I. Wofsey (XXX)

Oscar Corgan (XXX)

Dora Lifshitz (XXX)

J. Johnstone (Foster-Bittelman minority group)


Control Commission (11):

J. Mindel (XXX)

K. Radzie (XXX)

Charles Dirba (XXX)

A. Severino (XXX)

J.O. Bentall (XXX)

J. Lowrie (XXX)

O. Held (XXX)

A. Finkelberg (XXX)

M. Ziebel (XXX)

M. Nemser (XXX)

S. Herman (XXX)


1930 Communist Party of the USA

Elected at the 7th National Convention, June 1930


General Secretary:

Earl Browder


Central Committee Members (25):

Names of the Central Committee members and candidates were not immediately published in the Daily Worker.


Central Committee Candidate Members (7):